At bottom, the Muslim resistance against Spain in the Philippines was not an isolated or insignificant phenomenon but an essential part of the general resistance of all Muslim peoples in Malaysia against Western Imperialism, colonialism, and Christianity. In an important sense, the sultanates were articulations of a wider social entity, the Islamic society in the Malaysian world. It is within this context that the history of Moro Wars should be seen to be better understood.

…History books in the Philippines tend to lay emphasis on events in other islands and glorify national heroes from such areas, as if the history of the Philippines is only that of people who had been conquered while the history of the unconquered ones does not merit a share in the history of the Philippines. Possibly, with greater tolerance, intensive scholarship on all levels, deeper and wider moral perspectives, and a greater appreciation of the concept and implications of a pluralistic society, a future generation of Filipinos would consider the struggle of the Muslim South as part of the struggle of the entire nation—and the epic exploits of its heroes may well be the nation’s heritage.


CEZAR ADIB MAJUL was born in Aparri, Cagayan, Philippines, on October 21, 1923. He was educated at the University of the Philippines and Cornell University. From 1961 until 1966, he was Dean of the University College, University of the Philippines, and from 1969 until 1971, he was Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines. He received the Republic Heritage Award for “the most outstanding contribution to Historical Writing during the period from May 1, 1960 to April 30, 1961” as well as the First Prize in the Biography Contest on the Life of Apolinario Mabini in 1964. From the University of the Philippines, he received the Distinguished Scholar Award in 1968.

His major works include The Political and Constitutional Ideas of the Philippine Revolution (1957, 1968, 1996), Mabini and the Philippine Revolution (1960, 1996), and Apolinario Mabini: Revolutionary (1964).


History of Sulu